The Emerald stone belongs to the four precious stones with diamond, ruby and sapphire. It belongs to the silicate family and to the hexagonal crystal system. It is composed of aluminium silicate and beryllium. It also contains vanadium, chromium and iron. It has a green hue. However, its colour can vary between light and dark green and blue green. The name Emerald comes from the Latin word smaragdus and the Persian word zamarat which means “heart of stone”. During Antiquity, in Egypt, emerald stone was exploited for the manufacture of ornaments that were intended for the nobility. They recovered the stone in the deposit of Jebel Zabarah also called the “Cleopatra’s mines”. Indeed, the Egyptian queen was very fond of this precious stone. Thus, she offered to her relatives jewels like bracelets, pendants but also necklaces which were elaborated with emerald. In Rome, the Emerald stone was imported from Austria and was used to treat eye diseases.
In the 16th century, in Colombia, Emerald deposits were discovered by the Spanish conquistadors. At the end of the 17th century, the Great Moghol, an Emerald gem of more than 217 carats decorated with religious motifs, was discovered. Currently, the Emerald stone is exploited for the manufacture of jewellery such as bracelets, rings and necklaces. It is also used in lithotherapy in order to benefit from its many properties on the psychological and physical levels. Its formation taking place in specific geological conditions in the mantle of the earth’s crust, the Emerald stone is a very rare stone. Its main deposits are located in Colombia, Russia, Brazil, Madagascar, South Africa, Austria, Tanzania, Australia and India.